Fallopian tubes - A pair of tubes, one of which leads from each ovary to the uterus.
Familial cancer - Cancer occurring in families more frequently than would be expected by chance.
Fascia - A sheet or broad band of fibrous or connective tissue that covers muscles and various organs of the body and attaches the breasts and other body structures to underlying muscles.
Fat necrosis - Area of dead fat, usually following some form of trauma or surgery. May appear as lhmps or thickened areas.
Fat Necrosis Tumor - Destruction of fat cells in the breast due to trauma or injury that can cause a hard noncancerous lump.
Fertilization - The fusion of sperm and ovum to form a zygote, which then undergoes cell division to become an embryo. Fertilization in humans takes place high up in the Fallopian tube near the ovary, and the fertilized egg travels down and becomes implanted in the uterus.
Fibroadenoma - A noncancerous, solid tumor most commonly found in younger women.
Fibrocystic breasts - A recurring benign condition characterized by breast pain, swelling, and the appearance of cysts, or lumps.
Fibroid - A type of benign tumour found in the uterus, composed of fibrous and muscular tissue and varying in size from 1 or 2 mm to a mass weighing several kilograms.
Fibrous - Gristlelike strands of tough tissue that can grow in the body. In breast reconstruction this usually refers to shell or scar tissue formation sometimes found around implants.
Fine Needle Aspiration - Procedure to remove cells or fluid from tissues using a needle with an empty syringe. Cells or breast fluid is extracted by pulling back on plunger and is then analyzed by a physician.
Flap - A portion of tissue with its blood supply moved from one part of the body to another. Flaps of muscle, fat, and skin are frequently used to provide additional tissue for reconstructing a woman's breasts. Common donor sites for flap reconstruction are the abdomen (transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous, or TRAM, flap), back (latissimus dorsi flap), buttocks (gluteus maximus flap), and thigh.
Flow cytometry - Test that measures DNA content in tumours and indicates the aggressiveness of the tumour.
Foetus or fetus - An unborn child after the eighth week of development.
Foreskin - the prepuce, which is a fold of skin growing over the end (glands) of the penis.
Frank menopause - Obvious menopause.
Free-radical damage - Damage to tissue by molecules containing an odd number of electrons.
Frozen section - A tissue sample removed in a biopsy and quick frozen prior to thin slicing for microscopic examination.
Frozen shoulder - Shoulder stiffness that causes pain and limits the ability to lift the arm.