Galactocele - A clogged milk duct, often associated with lactation (breast milk production).
Galactography - The insertion of a plastic cannula into a duct of the breast through the nipple. The duct is injected with a dye by a radiologist. The duct can then be visualized by a radiologist or seen by a surgeon during surgery.
Galactorrhea - A discharge of breast milk.
Gamete - A mature germ or sexual cell, male or female, that can participate in fertilization, e.g. ovum and sperm.
Gamma probe - A handheld instrument to detect areas of radioactive material.
Gene - A unit of DNA that specifies the manufacture of a particular protein.
Genes - Located in the nucleus of the cell, genes contain hereditary information that is transferred from cell to cell.
Genetic - Refers to the inherited pattern located in genes for certain characteristics.
Genetic code - A code contained in genes that determines the manufacture of proteins.
Genetic counselling - The provision of advice to families about the nature and likelihood of inherited disorders and the options available in terms of prevention and management. With modern techniques of antenatal diagnosis, it is possible to determine at an early stage of a pregnancy whether a child will be abnormal.
Genetic material - Genes and the DNA from which they are made.
Genetic screening - The procedure whereby individuals are tested to determine whether their gene make-up suggests they carry a particular disease or condition. If it is shown that someone carries a genetically linked disease, then decisions can be taken regarding future children.
Genistein - A phytoestrogen produced by soy products.
Genital - The term used to describe anything relating to reproduction or the organs of the reproductive system.
Genital warts - Solid, benign growths present on the genitalia, externally or internally, which are caused by a VIRUS, the human papilloma virus (HPV). They are transmitted sexually and there is an established link between infection with certain strains of HPV and the occurrence of precancerous changes in the cervix and cervical cancer in women. Genital warts can be dealt with in several ways, e.g. cryosurgery (freezing), laser treatment and electrocautery.
Genitalia - The male or female organs of the reproductive system, often referring to the external parts only.
Genito-urinary - Tract the genital and urinary organs and associated structures: kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra and genitalia.
Gestation - The length of time from fertilization of the ovum to birth gleets a discharge symptomatic of chronic gonorrhoea.
Gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flap - Breast reconstruction operation that uses a distant flap of the patient's own tissue (autologous) from the buttock area to build a new breast.
Gonadotrophins or gonadotrophic hormone - Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is produced by males and females, as is luteinizing hormone, LH, (interstitial cell-stimulating hormQne, ICSH) in males. FSH controls, directly or indirectly, growth of the ova and sperm, while LH/ICSH stimulates reproductive activity in the gonads.
Gonads - The reproductive organs that produce the gametes and some hormones. In the male and female, the gonads are the testicles and ovaries respectively.
Gonorrhoea - The most common venereal disease, which is spread primarily by sexual intercourse but may also be contracted through contact with infected discharge on clothing, towels, sheets etc. The causative agent is the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and it affects the mucous membrane of the vagina or, in the male, the urethra.
Grading - Classification of cancers according to the appearance of cancer cells under the microscrope. Low-grade cancers often grow more slowly than high-grade cancers.
Growth rate factors - Markers used to predict the growth rate of cancerous cells and the likelihood that the cancer will spread.
Gynaecology - The subdiscipline of medicine that deals with diseases of women, particularly concerning sexual and reproductive function and diseases of reproductive organs.